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Archives "Séminiaire d’Economie des Transports"

Louafi Bouzouina (LAET-ENTPE)

Le Mardi 6 février à 14h30 en salle Ennat Léger (MSH)

Impact of pricing system on urban public transport efficiency : evidence from France.


Martin Koning (IFSTTAR, Université Paris-Est)

Le Mardi 12 décembre à 14h en salle D108 Université Lyon 2,

An Empirical Analysis of Welfare Losses Caused by Passengers and Freight Transport : The Paris Case Study

Abstract : This paper provides a tentative empirical appraisal of welfare losses caused by urban road freight in the Paris region, including congestion as well as its main environmental impacts. To do so, we calibrate an aggregate supply-demand model of passenger and freight road transport. Demand is represented by two independent functions, which in practice aggregate OD matrices generated by the freight generation and distribution model FRETURB and by the 4-step passenger travel model MODUS. The supply functions are co-dependent and account for congestion within a multiclass framework, based on the road assignment module of MODUS. We find that the current (un-tolled) situation leads to substantial welfare losses (2M€ per hour), 18% of which are linked to trucks (that represent 4% of total traffic in the effective equilibrium). While the marginal social cost (per vehicle kilometre) of heavy vehicles is significantly larger than for light vehicles (4.81€/vkm vs. 1.54€/vkm), under reasonable assumptions traffic mitigation efforts should focus more on light vehicles than on heavy vehicles in the Paris region in order to reach the social welfare optimum.


Charles Raux (LAET, Université de Lyon)

Le Mardi 28 novembre à 14h

Mobility Choices and Climate Change : Assessing the Effects of Social Norms and Economic Incentives through Discrete Choice Experiments

Abstract : The potential of psychological and fiscal incentives in motivating environmentally responsible behavior in a context of long distance leisure travel is explored thanks to a series of controlled experiments on 900 participants. Framing effects like information on CO2 emissions, injunctive and descriptive norms, in combination with fiscal incentives such as a carbon tax, a bonus-malus or a carbon trading scheme are tested. Providing CO2 information on emissions is highly effective and the injunctive norm reinforces this effect in the case of air and train. A quota scheme reinforces the injunctive norm effect in the case of these two modes. More strikingly, the amount of the financial sanction or reward has no effect on the probability of using the various travel modes, unlike the presence of the fiscal framing itself. These results reinforce the case for using psychologically framing effects, in association or not with fiscal instruments, in promoting